Like any piece of technology, a water filter has a limited lifespan before it begins to deteriorate. However, you can make sure they last as long as possible by maintaining them properly. An unclean filter will eventually also mean unclean water.
If you have never cleaned a filter before, you might not be sure how to do it. Even if you have, it is worth taking a few minutes to make sure you know how to clean a sediment filter properly.
In this article, we will explain everything you need to know about how to clean your water filter. This includes how a water filter works, how often to clean it, and methods to clean different types of filters.
How Do Water Filters Work?
There are many types of water purifiers, from industrial-scale reverse osmosis machines to residential pitchers. Whatever the type, size, material, or function, all water filters serve the same purpose. They remove impurities from your water so it is healthier to drink and kinder to your plumbing.
Most water filters work by channeling the water through a mesh, one that only water molecules can pass. Other molecules, including contaminants or even minerals such as salt, will be unable to pass this barrier.
The amount of maintenance required — and technique — will depend on the type of filter you use. Some, such as UV purifiers and distillers, don’t use filters, so maintenance will involve servicing the entire unit when necessary. How to clean a refrigerator water filter will differ from how to clean an under-sink filter, for example.
With smaller purifiers, especially carbon filters, collected substances have nowhere to go. In time, the residue will accumulate on the filter itself (1). In this case, the filter will absorb some of the contaminants it is intended to get rid of. As a result, the filter’s efficiency will begin to deteriorate until it stops working altogether.
Other purifiers, including some reverse osmosis machines, automatically dispose of the waste that is left behind. Even so, these purifiers will still need sanitizing to clear away any build-up inside the unit.
Cleaning can be problematic if you have a whole-house water filtration system installed. These systems are much larger and more complex, so it is best to go with professional installation and maintenance. A plumber will know how to clean a whole house water filter without damaging it.
Why Should You Clean Your Water Filters?
Just as your toothbrush needs to be replaced every few months to remain effective and prevent bacteria from building up, so does a water filter. As their job is to keep your water fresh and free from contaminants, the cleaner they are, the better they work. Thorough cleaning will allow you to reuse water filters that might otherwise be useless.
Here are some examples of what can happen if you don’t regularly perform maintenance on your water filter:
1. Microbes Make Their Way Into Your Water
One reason to filter is to remove pathogens from your water. Municipal water is treated before it reaches your home, but many people feel that extra filtration is necessary.
If you neglect your water filter, you increase the risk of these pathogens finding their way into your water (2).
2. Harder Water
The difference between hard and soft water is in their mineral content. Hard water contains higher levels of calcium and magnesium, while soft water has higher levels of sodium.
Hard water can be healthier to drink, but it is harmful to your plumbing, appliances, and even skin. Soft water is preferred in homes because it is kinder to your body, clothes, and pipes.
If you use a water filter to soften your water, it will eventually lose its effectiveness without proper maintenance. Calcium and magnesium will accumulate on the filter, rendering it useless.
3. Toxins Break Through
Not all filters are effective against harmful toxins, so it’s important to choose the right one. Look for filters that protect your water from heavy metals and other poisons — such as lead, mercury, fluoride, and chlorine.
These chemicals can be very detrimental to your health. The heavy metals we listed are all considered neurotoxins, and chlorine has been linked to many illnesses (3).
Each time your filter is used, part of its effective lifespan is spent. Eventually, it will be unable to isolate these harmful molecules, and they will remain in your water.
4. Toxins Remain
Less serious but still important, not changing your filters will affect how your water tastes. Hard water is said to have a more earthy or metallic taste, whereas soft water has a hint of salt to it. Chlorine can alter both the taste and odor of your drinking water (4).
Using a filter to improve the taste of your drinking water is a good enough reason to have one, even without taking the health benefits into account. Minerals and toxins will eventually break through your filter and affect how your water tastes.
How to Clean a Water Filter
Now that you know why you should clean your water filter, it’s time to get your hands dirty. These methods require little effort and are cost-effective solutions to maintaining your filtration system.
We won’t be looking at how to clean a water filter pitcher, as these are intended to be replaced regularly. As carbon filters and reverse osmosis systems are the most widespread types, we will focus on them.
Reverse Osmosis Filters
Reverse osmosis systems operate on two levels. The first is the reverse osmosis membrane filter, which is where most of the system’s efficiency lies. The second is in the pre-filters, which are most commonly made from, or incorporate activated carbon.
Before you get started, wash your hands or wear clean rubber or medical gloves. Also, shut off the water supply to the filtration system before servicing it.
- Drain: First, the water needs draining from the filtration system and tank. Close the faucet attached to the system, too.
- Detach: Remove both the pre-filter and reverse osmosis membrane from the system. You might need a wrench to open its casing.
- Clean: Use chemical cleaners to sanitize your system. Your filter manufacturer should provide a recommendation of which one to use. If you don’t know which one to choose, you can use two or three tablespoons of unscented bleach instead.
- Remove build-up: You can do this by adding your cleaning solution directly into your pre-filter housing. Then, you can fully open the bypass faucet and let the water run to rinse the system.
- Wash the membrane: Wash or wipe the membrane with your chosen solution. If you prefer, you can use dishwashing liquid for this instead. Take care to rinse it well to remove all traces of the chemical product.
- Reassemble: Once everything has been cleaned and rinsed, you can reassemble your system and restart it.
We recommend that you flush your system and clean or replace the membrane at least once every year.
Activated Carbon/Charcoal Filters
Cleaning carbon filters is similar to cleaning reverse osmosis ones, but you need to be more careful with them. You will be working with chemicals, so only do this in a well-ventilated area and make sure you know how to clean a carbon water filter before starting.
Wear gloves and follow the instructions of the cleaning chemicals to the letter. It’s best to cover your skin and wear goggles or a mask.
- Prep: Fill a bucket with a half-gallon of clean water at room temperature.
- Add muriatic acid: Slowly add two cups of muriatic acid, stirring it consistently and continuously. Use a plastic stirrer for this.
- Rinse the filter: If your filter has obvious build-up or debris on it, rinse it with a hose. Once it looks clear, place it inside the solution and let it sink.
- Wait: The filter will need to stay in this solution for at least five days to remove all contaminants. Ensure the solution stays at room temperature during this period.
- Resoak: Once the wait is over, soak your filter in clean water for five minutes.
- Rinse and reinstall: Rinse the filter with a hose. Once it’s clean, reinstall it.
If you don’t want to wait, you can simply rinse your carbon filters instead. However, this won’t completely remove toxins or build-up from them.
It is important to clean your water filters so they can do the same for your drinking water. Although cleaning carbon filters can be complicated, it is worthwhile if you want to save money on replacements while prolonging the life of each filter.
With both carbon filters and reverse osmosis membranes, don’t forget to also clean your filtration unit. Wipe it down or rinse its components, so it looks clean and fresh. Cleaning the case of a water filter with vinegar is possible, but you shouldn’t use it on the water filter cartridge itself.
If you take care of your water filter, it will be able to do a better job of taking care of you and your home’s plumbing.